Dnešek hrdinů Slavie z roku 1996: Silničář, hoteliér, skladník
Джордж Гершвин родился 26 сентября 1898 года в Нью-Йоркском районе Бруклин в семье еврейских эмигрантов из Российской империи (Одесса, ныне — Украина). При рождении назван родителями Яковом. Его отец, Мойше Гершовиц, переехал в Бруклин в начале 1890-х годов. Мать, Роза Брушкина, жила здесь несколькими годами ранее. Гершвин — внук петербургского мастера меховых изделий Брушкина, переехавшего в 1892 году с женой и дочерью в США. Джордж был вторым ребёнком в семье, где было четверо детей.
George Gershwin was born on September 26, 1898, in Brooklyn, New York, to Jewish immigrants from the Russian Empire (Odessa, now Ukraine). Originally named Jakov, his parents, Moishe and Rosa, hailed from Russia. His father, Moishe Gershovitz, had settled in Brooklyn in the early 1890s, and his mother, Rosa, had arrived a few years earlier. Gershwin's family lineage traces to a notable fur craftsman in Saint Petersburg. George, the second of four siblings, was profoundly inspired to teach himself piano at age 12 after meeting the talented young violinist Max Rosen.
¶CARLA BLEY: The pianist and composer who became a towering figure on the modern jazz scene. “Her music is a bold conversation, full of jokes and twists, dictating the rhythm of everything else,” wrote Gillian Reynolds. Carla Bley, was one of the great figures of modern jazz, a pianist, composer and bandleader who explored the further reaches of free jazz as well as the mainstream, including excursions into rock music; while she also assembled small groups, was her work with bigger outfits that set her apart. ¶A 1991 Telegraph review by Martin Gayford of her album The Very Big Carla Bley Band put her firmly in the tradition of experimentalists, a line stretching from Duke Ellington through to Charles Mingus. The album, he wrote, was in the vein of Mingus’s more extended works: “It has the same shouting climaxes, lyrical interludes, episodic structures and even a similar partiality for growling horns. Carla Bley is a not unworthy successor to those men.” She found another Telegraph fan three years later when the radio critic Gillian Reynolds tuned in to a Radio 3 series on Carla Bley by the playwright and jazz nut Alan Plater, Strange Arrangement: “She is slow fire and thin ice. ¶Her music is a bold conversation, full of jokes and twists, dictating the rhythm of everything else. I wanted to rush out and buy the records.” Her magnum opus was the 1971 jazz opera Escalator Over the Hill. Named album of the year by Melody Maker, and winner of the Grand Prix du Disque in France, it had a surreal libretto by the poet Paul Haines, while its huge roster of musicians included Paul Jones of Manfred Mann and Linda Ronstadt on vocals, Jack Bruce on bass and John McLaughlin on guitar. ¶The critic John Fordham described it as “the Sgt Pepper of new jazz”. Recorded over three years, the triple album was wildly inventive and bursting with musical ideas, drawing on such influences as classical, Indian and rock music. It was, said The Wire magazine, “a bloated mess – which contains some of the most exciting music she’s ever put her name to... entirely bewildering and utterly intoxicating.” She was born Lovella May Borg on May 11 1936 in Oakland, California; her father Emil Borg was a piano teacher “for the first six years of my life I heard nothing but badly played scales” as well as a church organist and choir master, while her mother Arline, née Anderson, died of heart failure when the girl was eight. ¶Her upbringing was religious “I was doused in religion, soaked in it, terrified of going to hell” but in her teens she rebelled and ran off to be a competitive roller-skater, having dropped out of school at 15. By then she had already cottoned on to the appeal of jazz, aged 12, after being taken to a concert by the vibraphone player Lionel Hampton. Five years later she hitchhiked to New York and worked as a cigarette girl at the celebrated Birdland jazz club, soaking up sets by the likes of Count Basie.
L'année dernière, un musée consacré à l'œuvre d'Étienne Terrus a révélé que la plupart de ses peintures n'étaient probablement pas de lui. Comment sont-ils arrivés là?
A FRENCH MUSEUM DEDICATED TO PAINTER ÉTIENNE TERRUS HAS DISCOVERED PAINTINGS IT THOUGHT WERE BY HIM WERE FAKES. THE TERRUS MUSEUM IN ELNE IN THE SOUTH OF FRANCE DISCOVERED 82 WORKS ORIGINALLY ATTRIBUTED TO THE ARTIST WERE NOT PAINTED BY HIM. MORE THAN HALF THE COLLECTION IS THOUGHT TO BE FAKE. THE PAINTINGS COST ABOUT €160,000 (£140,000). STAFF AT THE MUSEUM WERE NOT AWARE OF THE FORGERIES UNTIL A VISITING ART HISTORIAN ALERTED THEM. THE COUNCIL IN ELNE BOUGHT THE PAINTINGS, DRAWINGS AND WATERCOLOURS FOR THE MUSEUM OVER A 20-YEAR PERIOD. ERIC FORCADA, AN ART HISTORIAN, CONTACTED THE MUSEUM IN THE TOWN NEAR PERPIGNAN SEVERAL MONTHS AGO TO EXPRESS HIS DOUBTS ABOUT THE AUTHENTICITY OF THE PAINTINGS. THE MUSEUM ASSEMBLED A COMMITTEE OF EXPERTS FROM THE CULTURAL WORLD, WHO INSPECTED THE WORKS AND CONCLUDED THAT 82 OF THEM HAD NOT BEEN PAINTED BY THE ELNE-BORN ARTIST. THE NEWS WAS ANNOUNCED ON FRIDAY AS THE MUSEUM OPENED AFTER A RENOVATION.
María Izquierdo, a seminal Mexican artist born on October 30, 1902, in San Juan de los Lagos, Jalisco, and passing away on December 2, 1955, in Mexico City, is renowned for being the first Mexican woman to have her artwork exhibited in the United States. Her artistic journey was one of resilience and innovation, marked by a deep commitment to showcasing her Mexican roots amidst a landscape dominated by prominent Mexican male artists like Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, and David Alfaro Siqueiros. Izquierdo's early life was shaped by significant upheavals. After her father's death, she and her mother moved to Torreón. Her upbringing, largely under the influence of devout Catholic relatives, was steeped in traditional Mexican culture. This cultural immersion, combined with a profound interest in art, led her to Mexico City in 1923, where she began her formal art education and development as a professional artist. In 1928, Izquierdo enrolled at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes (Academy of Fine Arts). Her studies coincided with a crucial period in Mexican history, following the Mexican Revolution and the rise of President Álvaro Obregón's reforms that emphasized traditional Mexican values in art. Influenced by instructors like Rufino Tamayo, Manuel Rodríguez Lozano, and German Gedovius, and notably by Diego Rivera, she delved into creating art that reflected Mexican traditions and modernity. Despite her talent, Izquierdo faced hostility from peers, partly due to Rivera's favoritism. This animosity and frustration with the school's political focus led her to leave. She became part of a group of young writers and artists, known as the Contempo-ráneos, which celebrated Mexico's unique traditions while embracing international influences and urban intellectualism. Rufino Tamayo, an instructor and mentor to Izquierdo, had a profound impact on her early development. Sharing a studio and a romantic relationship with Tamayo for four years, she was introduced to watercolor and developed a style that emphasized art as a poetic outlet rather than a political tool. This relationship helped Izquierdo carve her distinct artistic identity, she became part of the League of Revolutionary Writers and Artists. Her career was marked by her unique visual language that brought indigenous motifs into the present, giving them layered meanings and reflecting on personal and social histories. Her art, recognized for its sculptural rendering of human figures inspired by indigenous art, redefined the portrayal of Mexican identity. Izquierdo had feminist themes in her work, celebrating women's power, courage, and independence, and challenging conventional gender roles. Throughout her life, she was an advocate for women's rights and independence, serving as an inspiration for many younger women artists. Her life was marked by resilience; at fourteen, she was coerced into an arranged marriage, but she left this marriage to pursue art, simultaneously raising three children. Despite significant challenges, including being paralyzed on one side of her body after a hemiplegic attack and being abandoned by her husband, she continued to paint until her death.